The technique of painting with pigments bound in a water-soluble emulsion, such as water and egg yolk, or an oil-in-water emulsion such as oil and a whole egg
Earths Natural earths (Raw Sienna, Burnt Sienna, Raw Umber, Burnt Umber, Green Earth) All the siennas, umbers, and green earths are entirely natural and come from Italian soil. They are all natural iron oxides. The natural earth colours are completely lightfast and stable in mixtures. Colours referred to as “burnt” come from calcified native earth. Siennas and umbers require a great amount of oil in grinding. Since earths naturally have excellent drying properties, avoid adding drying agents. Earth pigments are suitable for all techniques, and are recommended for fresco.
The general term iron oxide pigment is an appropriate name when referring to both natural and synthetic materials that may contain mixtures of iron oxides and iron oxide hydroxides.
Ochres have been in use since prehistory. These coloured clays, which contain iron oxide and quarts are found in the earth and generally come from France and Italy. These natural pigments are very lightfast.\
A new quality of pigments traditionally used for a Japanese painting technique called Enogu, for which pigments are made in exactly specified particle sizes the particles are basically all the same size and shape. In comparison, normal pigments usually come in a range of particle sizes, for example 080 microns. The pigments are often made by grinding glass.
A technique which involves mixing pigment into wax and which si traced to ancient Egypt, though rarely employed in contemporary art — creates a lumpy, optically veiled surface.
The Japanese word for traditional papers made from the long inner fibres of three plants. Wa means Japanese; shi means paper. As of the fall of 2008, there remained fewer than 350 families still engaged in the production of paper by hand. In doing so, the inner bark of three plants native to Japan is used:
KOZO (paper mulberry) is said to be the masculine element, the protector, thick and strong. It is the most widely used fibre, and the strongest. It is grown as a farm crop, and regenerates annually, so no forests are depleted in the process.
MITSUMATA is the "feminine element": graceful, delicate, soft and modest. Mitsumata takes longer to grow and is thus a more expensive paper. It is indigenous to Japan and is also grown as a crop.
GAMPI was the earliest and is considered to be the noblest fibre, noted for its richness, dignity and longevity. It has an exquisite natural sheen, and is often made into very thin tissues used in book conservation and chine-collé printmaking. Gampi has a natural 'sized' finish which does not bleed when written or painted on.
A coniferous resin used as a varnish, and sometimes as part of mixed media.